Matterial detection technologies

Magnetic tune (QNR) tech, used for explosives detection

 

C.G.R.I. REPORT

CGRI 2012-64

Unlimited Release

Printed August 2012

 

Disadvantages and hazards in Using

Para magnetism for explosives detection systems

 

Prepared by

C.G.R.I. Laboratories

Simis 15, Nikosia 2044, Cyprus, EU

www.cgri.gr

 

C.G.R.I. laboratories operated by C.G.R.I. Ltd,

www.cgri.gr

 

Corresponding Author: Konstantinos Stromatias,

Date: 22 August 2012

Greek Army Brigadier (ret) , Branch of Combat Engineers & Informatics

Microelectronics systems Designer - Inventor Researcher
BSc in Greek Military Academy

MSc in Microelectronics and Computer Engineering

PhD candidate in Geophysics

Contact Details: info@cgri.gr

 

Cyprus Geopathetic Research Institute Laboratories

NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by C.G.R.I., Cyprus, EU. Neither the C.G.R.I. nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represent that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the C.G.R.I., any agency thereof, or any of their contractors or subcontractors.

The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the C.G.R.I., any agency thereof, or any of their contractors.

 

 

 

 

 

CGRI 2012-64

Printed August 2012

 

 

 

Disadvantages and hazards in Using

Para magnetism for explosives detection systems

 

 

 

 

Contraband Detection Department

 

 

 

C.G.R.I. Laboratories

2044

Simis 15, Nikosia, Cyprus, EU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

 

Continued acts of terrorism using explosive materials throughout the world have led to great interest in long distance explosives detection technology, especially technologies that have a potential for remote on detection. This report was undertaken to investigate of the disadvantages and hazards in using of para magnetism technologies in long distance explosives detection systems.

 

 

 

Acknowledgements

 

The authors acknowledge the contributions provided by the Early Warning Systems R & D Department, C.G.R.I. Laboratories

 

 

 

 

 

Materials Detection

Security Threats

        Explosives

        Bombs, mines, IEDs, military explosives

        Illicit substances

        Drugs

        Weapons

        Detecting these threats is an issue of extreme importance

        Terrorism acts, drug trafficking => danger to human life

        Elaborate disguise techniques (luggage, suits, cars, Buried)

        Wide variety of different materials

 

There are only but a few technologies word wide for material detection. Especially for explosives detection most effective are shown bellow

Detection Technologies

Important factors:

        Portability, cost, sensitivity, accuracy, ease of use, single/multi category, (un)controlled environment, scan rate

 

        Typical Detection Technologies:

Trace detection

X-ray (widely used)

Canine detection

Novel & Experimental technologies

Paramagnetism (Appendix A.7)

_ Laser (Appendix A.8)

Sensors & Technology in materials detection, worldwide

 

 

 

 

 

Close Range Metal Detector Technology

 


Metal detectors transmit electromagnetic waves that reflect on a land mine and return. The distance they detect from is very small.

 

 


The typical depth of a buried land mine is approximately 10 -20 cm.


But after long time weather conditions (sandstorms, heavy rain etc) the depth might be varied to many centimeters more...

 

About the Para Magnetism phenomenon

 

Characteristics of explosives

Many different types of explosive exist and certain types may be more used by particular groups or at particular times, depending on availability, information etc. Currently, a particular danger is perceived from plastic and liquid explosives. The sources from which terrorists may acquire explosives are from the military, from industry and by making them themselves. Blocking terrorist acquisition of military and industrial explosives is dependent on the rigorous following of security procedures for storage, transport and use, including careful documentation. Technology, such as radio-frequency tracking devices, may also help. Prevention of illicit fabrication of explosives is currently a subject of significant attention. The main difficulties are that precursor materials are legitimately available and in widespread use, not only by industry but even as household chemicals, and recipes have been widely disseminated via the internet.

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 


Application of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance to Detection of Explosives and Research Activities at CIAE. Shengyun Zhu, Xing Li, Zhongcheng Lu, Guobao Wang, and Weiguo Shu China Institute of Atomic Energy P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413, P.R. China (Dated: May 16, 2008)

The detection of explosives is a challenging topic. The nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance technique exploits the transitions between the energy levels split by the quadrupole interaction to detect the presence of explosives. It is a very promising new technique owing to its unambiguous detection and identification of explosives with low false alarm, high sensitivity and fast detection. The explosive screening machines based on the nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance have been used for aviation security at airports. This paper describes the principle and application of nitrogen- 14 nuclear quadrupole resonance to detection of explosives and reviews the research activities in this domain at China Institute of Atomic Energy. II. PRINCIPLE OF 14N-NQR Table I shows the elemental composition of explosives. It can be seen that explosives contain N (the abundance of 14N is 99.634%) except KClO3. The charge distribution of 14N nucleus with a spin I = 1 is asymmetric. The 14N-NQR detection of explosives makes use of the electric field gradient internally generated in substances to detect the presence of explosives and acts a fingerprint identification of explosives with low false alarm, high sensitivity, fast scanning and easy operation. The 14N-NQR technique is a promising new means for and will play an important role in explosive detection.

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Para magnetism Matterial detection technologies

 

What is para magnetic phenomenon ?

Paramagnetism   is a form of magnetism whereby the paramagnetic material is only attracted when in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. In contrast with this behavior, diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields.[1] Paramagnetic materials have a relative magnetic permeability greater or equal to unity (i.e., a positive magnetic susceptibility) and hence are attracted to magnetic fields. The magnetic moment induced by the applied field is linear in the field strength and rather weak. It typically requires a sensitive analytical balance to detect the effect and modern measurements on paramagnetic materials are often conducted with a SQUID magnetometer.

Paramagnetic materials have a small, positive susceptibility to magnetic fields. These materials are slightly attracted by a magnetic field and the material does not retain the magnetic properties when the external field is removed. Paramagnetic properties are due to the presence of some unpaired electrons, and from the realignment of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field. Paramagnetic materials include magnesium, molybdenum, lithium, and tantalum.

Unlike ferromagnets, paramagnets do not retain any magnetization in the absence of an externally applied magnetic field, because thermal motion randomizes the spin orientations. Some paramagnetic materials retain spin disorder at absolute zero, meaning they are paramagnetic in the ground state. Thus the total magnetization drops to zero when the applied field is removed. Even in the presence of the field there is only a small induced magnetization because only a small fraction of the spins will be oriented by the field. This fraction is proportional to the field strength and this explains the linear dependency. The attraction experienced by ferromagnetic materials is non-linear and much stronger, so that it is easily observed, for instance, by the attraction between a refrigerator magnet and the iron of the refrigerator itself 

see more >> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramagnetism

Kyklotron's ltd and Cyprus Geopathetic Research Institute tests conclusions  about para magnetism tech in explosives detection

After 3 years testing in Greece, Cyprus, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, U.A.E, and India Kyklotrons ltd scientific team notice that in the previous generation systems that had been developed since 2004, based in the para magnetism m,agnetic tuned phenomenon as their basic operating principle, the following :

- failure to pin point process

- failure to function for long time


- self-tuned phenomena in many natural minerals, especially in some of crystal structure 


- self - resonance phenomena in natural minerals, especially in those crystal structure

 - absolute (for good working) dependence in room and storage temperatures (26 28 Celsius degree)

- strong affection to heterogenesis magnetic fields ( as are telluric currents, etc)

- strictly dependent on the human user existence (for working properly)


- absolute reliance on weather ( local ) weather conditions

Using for all those years built in paramagnetic tuned technology in our previous generation systems in Kyklotron ltd, we confirm :  

- failure to clean process from explosives on a specific area


-failure to protection process from explosives of a specific area

increased possibility of making error in target (explosive) detection

-totally impuissance operation in the field (in finding the proper target not crystals or minerals)

   
-Extremely difficulty to pre tune  the new (today using) explosive mixtures

   
 - Continue feed buck and regulating requirements for the system setup as to be satisfactory able to detect the target.

 - an increased possibility to make the user confused about the target direction

More particular ,

 We in Kyklotron ltd in practice, using para magnetism tech embedded in our machines, we could not reach closer targets than 120 meters.  This means 4 5 blocs of flats target detection impuissance.  In real world we could not do the clean from explosives process

In General we in Kyklotron ltd we noticed that :

 This tech is patented by patent no: EP 0911650 B1, and uses a specific frequency transition for each detected material structure.

The para magnetism technology based on the electromagnetic emission of low radiation frequencies (VLF - LF). 

 Those frequencies ( http://www.kyklotron.com/NQR.html ) are often not univocal for a specific material structure.   A typical example of this is the case of the explosive type by the name 'tortile'.

 At the beginning of our tests process we observe that although this explosive material poorly tuned in temperature / room / lab conditions (26 28 degrees Celsius).

Later, at field tests in different weather and local conditions in Europe, Gulf territory and Asia, we notice that the specific tuned frequency tuned in root of trees and crystalline forms of natural minerals.  Especially in tests that there is water beneath the subsoil or flowing water on the surface (particularly near rivers) or in raining conditions.

In our opinion, this fact might in some cases to pose serious risks for those who will use this tech, because tortile is almost in all ammunitions (artillery shells, bombs, mortars, grenades of all types, mortars, projectiles etc. )

Unfortunately we found that the above example is not unique or exception

This tech appears self- tuned phenomena in crystalline structure materials (minerals especially).

 Those kind of materials have the capacity to return buck the specific frequency (as radiation) which the para magnetism based phenomenon tech machines bomb them with.

 

 A typical mineral crystalloid stone , that causes  'abnormal' results in magnetic tuned phenomenon.  This  specific rock tuned in most known sequences for tuning explosive matters, as tortile.  When this particular rock take the electromagnetic wave in the field, the magnetometer (below picture) indication was 43 esla.

  

At the left above picture, the same rock without getting any magnetic radiation from any magnetic tuned device, in the laboratory, has an it shelf magnetic field, indicated as12 esla.

 

At the right above picture, the same rock when putted into water, turned to red color. 

 

At the above pictures, the same rock when putted into water, without getting any magnetic radiation, indicated as 5 esla.

Especially in areas where pine trees exists, this self tuned phenomenon is very acute and strong.  This because pine roots derive ores and minerals from the soil and mixed inside the tree with the RESIN making a mixed that German scientist wilhelm Riche names as orgone energy. This orgone energy seems to be mostly responsible for some of those self tuned phenomena.  There are and other self tuned phenomena as the self tuning on chalcopyrite constructed minerals. This is a mineral existing in nature. In weather condition when moisture is present this phenomenon is very strong.  For the researcher , we propose to study the  'zero-field or  crystal - field effect' for understanding the mineral - crystals behavior we write here.  A reference for this is Dr . book :  , ,

 TEST AREAS fields we do our process are in Agios Nikolaos, Salamis island, GREECE, DISORO OROS in Kilkis, Macedonia, Greece and at the island of Crete, Georgioupolis area, Greece.  

Explosives detection capabilities (most known)

explosive system detection capability  (Yes / No )

 

false tuned to minerals

N

false tuned to trees & roots

N

false  tuned to chalcopyrite minerals

N

false tuned to magnetic fields

N

cell phones  reflaction   jaming

N

parapets, walls, building,etc independent detection

Y

pin point detection

Y

Localize target 

Y

Localize target and represent on GIS map

Y

is harmless to human health (x rays , etc)

N

C4ISR  model  capabilities

Y

communication using Wi-Fi

Y

communication using bluetooth

Y

communication using cell phone

Y

GPS emmbeded on search device

Y

magnetic compass embeded

Y

needs cards or explosive matterial on board

N

needs use of electrostatic gloves

N

needs human energy to work

N

detects explosive from 0-5 meters

Y

detects explosive from 0-50 meters

Y

detects explosive from 0-100 meters

Y

detects explosive from 5-100 meters

Y

detects explosive from 100-1000 meters

Y

detects explosive from 100-2000 meters

Y

detects explosive from 0-5000 meters

Y

detects explosive from 0-10.000 meters

Y

detects explosive from 0-20.000 meters

Y

detects explosive from 0  -  > 20.000 meters

Y

detects in search angle > 60 degrees

Y

attracted from explosive that  is oposite of the system

N

can tuned in every distinguish matterial structure ?

Y

References

1.   Appendix K: Nuclear quadrupole resonance, by Allen N. Garroway, Naval Research Laboratory. In Jacqueline MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood: Alternatives for Landmine Detection. Report MR-1608, Rand Corporation, 2003.

2.  Leigh, James R. (1988). Temperature measurement & control. London: Peter Peregrinus Ltd.. p. 48. ISBN 0 86341 111 8.

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_quadrupole_resonance

4. http://www.nato.int/science http://www.iospress.nl

5. http://www.springer.com

6. www.kyklotron.com

7. www.geoment.e-e-e.gr/default.htm

8. http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=20080919&CC=GR&NR=20070100067A&KC=A

9. http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?CC=GR&NR=1004926&KC=&FT=E&locale=en_EP

10. http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?CC=GR&NR=1005224&KC=&FT=E&locale=en_EP

11. http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=20080205&CC=GR&NR=20060100352A&KC=A

 

12. http://www.cgri.gr/wmtspatents.htm

 

13. www.cgri.gr

 

14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramagnetism

15. Dr . book :  , , .

16. wilhelm Riche , research for the orgone energy

17.              Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley: New York, 1996).

 

18.                Neil W. Ashcroft and N. David Mermin, Solid State Physics (Harcourt: Orlando, 1976).

 

 

19.              John David Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley: New York, 1999).

 

20.              ave, Carl L. "Magnetic Properties of Solids". HyperPhysics. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/tables/magprop.html. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 

 

 

21.              J. Jensen and A. R. MacKintosh, "Rare Earth Magnetism". http://www2.nbi.ku.dk/page40667.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-12. , (Clarendon Press, Oxford: 1991).

 

22.              A. F. Orchard, Magnetochemistry, (Oxford University Press: 2003).

 

 

 

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