Wave-shooting Magnetic Tuned (WMTS) tech

in KYKLOTRON  E3   systems series

                                                           

WMTS is the tech that KYKLOTRON engines realized. Explosives detection based on the Magnetic tuned phenomenon, a tech that detects all common nitrogen based explosives (including ammunition) and also liquid explosives from a distance from 5 to > 20000 meters.

KYKLOTRON E3   system: 

                      Has Alternating Electromagnetic Signals that creating Magnetic Fields.

                      Has antenna rotated by the user holding the system, creating Angular Momentum.

                      Depending on the creating Magnetic Fields, different types of Explosives and humans can be detected.

                      When the user is trying to move the antenna  out of the direction (line) of the explosive, magnetic tune * is experienced and detection is achieved.  

KYKLOTRON E3 detector’s operation is based on the ATTRACTION created by the particular explosive substance on the antenna of the system.  This phenomenon is based on the magnetic tune phenomenon between the explosive and the KYKLOTRON E3 system’s antenna .

When trying to take out the antenna  from the magnetic field, the user experiences difficulty. Magnetic Tune is experienced on the antenna.                    The magnetic tune is detected.  

When antenna stops and point to a direction then the user knows that detection is done. 

Using the KYKLOTRON E3 system, a new operational dimension is given to the ability to localize explosive explosives from any (pin point, medium or long distance). This way, large areas can be “cleaned” from explosives.

Measurements with the KYKLOTRON E3 system have to be taken from two points for locating the explosives. From the first point, measurement gives the direction (line) where explosives are located. From the second point, measurement (line) gives the location that explosives are located. The location is where the second measurement line, crosses the first measurement line.  From a third point, measurement (line) confirms the location of the explosives.

The lines of direction from the three (or more) measurement points must be projected on a Map environment (GIS system depending on coordinates and no on map pixels) for better understanding of what is detected. Known location areas of Military bases, already shown on the Map can be excluded from the search. 

  According to wikipedia , ' ... Nuclear quadrupole * resonance  spectroscopy or NQR is a chemical analysis technique related to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_quadrupole_resonance

Principle

In NMR, nuclei with spin ≥ 1/2 have a magnetic dipole moment so that their energies are split by a magnetic field, allowing resonance absorption of energy related to the difference between the ground state energy and the excited state. In NQR, on the other hand, nuclei with spin ≥ 1 , such as 14N, 35Cl and 63Cu, also have an electric quadrupole moment so that their energies are split by an electric field gradient, created by the electronic bonds in the local environment. Since unlike NMR, NQR is done in an environment without a static (or DC) magnetic field, it is sometimes called "zero field NMR". Many NQR transition frequencies depend strongly upon temperature.

Any nucleus with more than one unpaired nuclear particle (protons or neutrons) will have a charge distribution which results in an electric quadrupole moment. Allowed nuclear energy levels are shifted unequally due to the interaction of the nuclear charge with an electric field gradient supplied by the non-uniform distribution electron density (e.g. from bonding electrons) and/or surrounding ions. The NQR effect results when transitions are induced between these nuclear levels by an externally applied radio frequency (RF) magnetic field. The technique is very sensitive to the nature and symmetry of the bonding around the nucleus. The energy level shifts are much larger than the chemical shifts measured in NMR. Due to symmetry, the shifts become averaged to zero in the liquid phase, so NQR spectra can only be measured for solids. 

 

 Applications

There are several research groups around the world currently working on ways to use NQR to detect explosives. Units designed to detect landmines[2] and explosives concealed in luggage have been tested. A detection system consists of a radio frequency (RF) power source, a coil to produce the magnetic excitation field and a detector circuit which monitors for a RF NQR response coming from the explosive component of the object.

Another practical use for NQR is measuring the water/gas/oil coming out of an oil well in realtime. This particular technique allows local or remote monitoring of the extraction process, calculation of the well's remaining capacity and the water/detergents ratio the input pump must send to efficiently extract oil.[citation needed]

The strong temperature dependence of NQR's frequency allows to make a precise temperature sensor with resolution 10-4 °C[3].

References

1.   Appendix K: Nuclear quadrupole resonance, by Allen N. Garroway, Naval Research Laboratory. In Jacqueline MacDonald, J. R. Lockwood: Alternatives for Landmine Detection. Report MR-1608, Rand Corporation, 2003.

2.  Leigh, James R. (1988). Temperature measurement & control. London: Peter Peregrinus Ltd.. p. 48. ISBN 0 86341 111 8.

see also :  

1. "Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance", T.P. Das and E.L. Hahn, Chapter in Solid State

Physics, Suppl.l, Academic Press, New York, 1958.

2. Abragam, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism, Clarendon Press, 1961

3. "Steady State Free Precession in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance," H.Y. Carr, Physical

Review, 112, 1693-1701, 1958.

4. "Nitrogen-14 NQR Study of Energetic Materials," R.A.Marino, R.F. Connors, and

L.Leonard (Block Engineering), Final Report to on U.S.Army Research Office

Contract DAAG29 79 C 0025, September 1982.

5. "Multiple Spin Echoes in Pure Quadrupole Resonance," R.A. Marino and S.M.

Klainer, Journal of Chemical Physics, 67,3388-3389, 1977.

6. "Explosives Detection by Pure 14N NQR", A.N. Garroway, J.B. Miller and M.L.

Buess, Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Explosive Detection

Technology, November 13-15,1991, Atlantic City, USA.

7. "Pulsed Spin Locking in Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance of 14N," D.Ya. Osokin,

Soviet Physics. JETP, 57(1), 69-71, 1983.

8. "Experimental Investigations of the Strong Off-Resonant Comb (SORC) Pulse

Sequence in 14N NQR," S.S.Kim, J.R.P.Jayakody, and R.A. Marino, Zeitshrift fur

Naturforschung, 47a, 415-420, 1992.

9. "Pulsed Fourier Transform NQR of 14N with a DC SQUID," M.D.Hurlimann,

C.H.Pennington, N.Q.Fan, J.Clarke, A.Pines, and E.L.Hahn, Physical Review Letters,

69, 684-687, 1992.

10. "SQUID Technology for Improved NMR/NQR Measurements Below 1MHz,"

Quantum Magnetics, Final Report on NSF Award 9160966, September 29, 1992.

11. "Librational Motion of Hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine Based on the Temperature

Dependence of Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectra: The

Relationship to Condensed-Phase Thermal Decomposition," R.J. Karpowicz and

T.B.Brill, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 87, 2109-2112, 1983.

12. "Detection of Explosives by Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)." A.N.

Garroway, J.B. Miller, J.P. Yesinowski, and M.L. Buess, Naval Research Laboratory,Final Report on Contract NEODTC N0464A92WR04515, FAA DTFA03-83-A-

00322, March 26 1993.

13. "Electronic Effects and Molecular Motion in ß-Octahydro-l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7- tetrazocine Based on 14N Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy,"

A.G.Landers, T.B.Brill, and R.A. Marino, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 85, 2618- 2643, 1981.

14. "Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance of Substituted Nitrobenzenes," S.N.Subbarao, E.G. Sauer, and P.J.Bray, Physics Letters, 42A, 461, 1973.

15. "Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study of Substituted Nitrobenzenes,"S.N. Subbarao and P.J.Bray, Journal of Chemical Physics, 67(9), 3947-55, 1977.

16. "14N and 39K Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling in KN03," T.J. Barstow and S.N.

Stewart, Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, 45a, 459-463, 1990.

17. "14N NQR Study of the Structural Phase Transitions in NH4NO3," J.Seliger, V.Zagar,

and RBlinc, Zeitschrift fur Physik B, Condensed Matter, 77, 439-443, 1989.

18. Private communication, R.A.Marino, Hunter College, CUNY, NY, September 1994.

19. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of 14N and 35C1 in Ammonium Perchlorate," T.J.

Barstow and S.N. Stewart, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 1,4649-4657,

1989.

20. "Nitrogen-14 and Nitrogen-15 Wide-Line NMR Studies of Nitrocellulose," R.A.

Marino, Final Technical Report for Task 7-09, Department of Army, 30 October

1987.

21. "Detection of NQR in Explosives," V.S. Grechishkin, Russian Journal of Physics,

35(7), English Pages 637-640, 1992. Translation of Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnyykh

Zavedenii, Fizika, No.7, pp.62-65, July 1992.

22. Private Communication, T.J. Rayner, July 1994.

23. "Engineering Design Handbook: Explosives Series, Properties of Explosives of

Military Interest," U.S. Army Materiel Command, January 1971.

 

Other Relevant QR Papers Not Referenced

1. "Detection of Explosives and Narcotics by Low Power Large Sample Volume

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)", M.L. Buess, A.N. Garroway and J.B. Miller,

U.S. Patent 5206592..

2. "Detection of Explosives by Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance," M.L. Buess, J.B.

Miller, and A.N. Garroway, U.S. Patent 5233300.

3. "A Means for Removing Effects of Acoustic Ringing and Reducing the Temperature

Effects in the Detection of Explosives and Narcotics by Nuclear Quadrupole

Resonance," M.L. Buess, A.N. Garroway, and J.P. Yesinowski, Navy Case Number

74,325 (filed 30 Nov. 1992).

4. "Narcotics Detection using Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance," J. Shaw, Contraband

and Cargo Inspection Technology International Symposium, Washington D.C., 28-30

October 1992.

5. "A Search for NQR Signals in Heroin and Cocaine," R.A. Marino and J.R.P.

Jayakody, Final Technical Report on subcontract to Quantum Magnetics under US

Customs contract TC-91-031.

6. "NQR for Bomb Detection: Solution to the Plastics Problem ?" D. Noble, Analytical

Chemistry, 66 (5), 320A - 324A, March 1 1994.

7. "Explosives Detection by Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)," A.N. Garroway,

M.L. Buess, J.P. Yesinowski, J.B.Miller, and R.A. Krauss, Report on results of

demonstration of prototype NQR explosives detector at FAA Technical Center in

May 1994..

8. "NQR Device for Detecting Plastic Explosives, Mines, and Drugs," V.S. Grechishkin,

Applied Physics, A55, 505-507, 1992.

9. "Short Range Remote NQR Measurments," T. Hirschfeld and S.M. Klainer, Journal

of Molecular Structure, 58, 63-77, 1980.

10. "A Pulsed NQR-FFT Spectrometer for Nitrogen-14," J.C.Harding, D.A.Wade, R.A.

Marino, E.G.Sauer, and S.M.Klainer, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 36,21-33,

1979.

11. "New Methods of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance," V.S. Grechishkin and N.Ja.

Sinjavsky, Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, 45a, 559, 1990.

 

 

In case of magnetic tuned appliance (KYKLOTRON E3) those radiofrequencies, emitted by the various cores of (hydrogen, coal, Nitrogen, Cl etc) the explosive that is searched, creates a magnetic field (98) which the resultant  (93) tuned with the resultant of a magnetic field created from : (FIGURE 4)

 1. The magnetic field of the appliance  it shelf (22)

2. The magnetic field emitted from the appliance operators (102) body (97)

 

Figure 4

3. The magnetic field that created from the initial (96) impulse (movement) of the appliance antenna (15 & 71)  in the horizontal level.

In the magnetic tuned phenomenon, finally, actively participates earths magnetic field (103) and any other capable to influence and to tune with the above, magnetic field   happens to exist in the environment space, as drops of rain, humidity, underground waters etc. Tuned our magnetic tuned appliance to the frequency of some core precession, it resembles with our radio tuned in some radio or television stations emission frequency.

Magnetic tuned occurs at cores as Nitrogen (a chemical element that has the symbol N, atomic number of 7 and atomic mass 14.00674 u) , Cl ( Element Symbol is Cl, atomic number is 17, and atomic mass is 35.453) ,  and others. As a result KYKLOTRON E3 systems detects all common nitrogen based explosives (including ammunition) and potassium chlorine - based explosives,  

In next FIGURES appears the phenomenon of explosive structures magnetic tune, as it is controlled repeated (that is to say lasts as long as the emission radiation from the appliance lasts) from the KYKLOTRON E3 system.

 During the  ‘cores -relaxation’ process from the explosive that `bombers' each time by the appliance and operators  radiation  –  who participates actively in the experiment - the cores system returns in the initial balance situation, with the cores to expel energy ,  emitting radiation of frequency equal with the frequency of tuned in the region of radiofrequencies and transporting part of their energy in the around molecules. The energy that expels appears to be photons, the emission of which as it is well known, creates a MAGNETIC FIELD round the explosive structure. That magnetic field draws continuously the aerials of  KYKLOTRON E3 appliance, revealing so much the existence and the place that the detection of explosives is found. Some photos from spectrograph represented below.

 What is happening about magnetic tune phenomenon  when the KYKLOTRON E3 engine operates is been represented at  the pictures below.  

 

 Photos and figures from spectrograph , shown magnetic tuned of several materials

  

 

 

 

 

 

 Quadrupole

A quadrupole or quadrapole is one of a sequence of configurations of—for example—electric charge or current, or gravitational mass that can exist in ideal form, but it is usually just part of a multipole expansion of a more complex structure reflecting various orders of complexity.

Mathematical definition

The zero-trace quadrupole moment tensor of a system of charges (or masses, for example) is defined as

Q_{ij}=\sum_l q_l(3(x_i)_l (x_j)_l-r_l^2\delta_{ij})\ ,

For a discrete system with individual charges, or

Q_{ij}=\int\, \rho(x)(3x_i x_j-r^2\delta_{ij})\, d^3x\ ,

for a continuous system with charge density \rho(x). The indices i,j run over the Cartesian coordinates.x,y,z

The quadrupole moment tensor has 9 components, but because of the rotational symmetry and zero-trace property, only 5 of these are independent. As with any multipole moment, if a lower-order moment (monopole or dipole in this case) is non-zero, then the value of the quadrupole moment depends on the choice of the coordinate origin. For example, a dipole of two opposite-sign, same-strength point charges (which has no monopole moment) can have a nonzero quadrupole moment if the origin is shifted away from the center of the configuration (exactly between the two charges); or the quadrupole moment can be reduced to zero with the origin at the center. In contrast, if the monopole and dipole moments vanish, but the quadrupole moment does not (e.g., four same-strength charges, arranged in a square, with alternating signs), then the quadrupole moment is coordinate independent.

If each charge is the source of a " 1/r " field, like the electric or gravitational field, the contribution to the field's potential from the quadrupole moment is:  

V_q(\mathbf{R})=\frac{k}{|\mathbf{R}|^3} \sum_{i,j} Q_{ij}\, n_i n_j\ ,

where R is a vector with origin in the system of charges and n is the unit vector in the direction of R. Here, is a constant that depends on the type of field, and the units being used. The factors  n_i, n_j  are components of the unit vector from the point of interest to the location of the quadrupole moment.

Electric quadrupole

 Contour plot of the equipotential surfaces of an electric quadrupole field.

The simplest example of an electric quadrupole consists of alternating positive and negative charges, arranged on the corners of a square. The monopole moment (just the total charge) of this arrangement is zero. Similarly, the dipole moment is zero, when the coordinate origin is at the center of the picture. But the quadrupole moment of the arrangement in the diagram cannot be reduced to zero, regardless of where we place the coordinate origin. The electric potential of an electric charge quadrupole is given by [1]

                                                                 

where  is the electric permittivity.                                    Contour plot of the equipotential

                                                                                  surfaces of an electric quadrupole field.

Generalization: Higher multipoles

An extreme generalization ("Point octupole") would be: Eight alternating point charges at the eight corners of a parallelepiped, e.g. of a cube with edge length a. The "octupole moment" of this arrangement would correspond, in the "octupole limit" \lim_{a\to 0;\,a^3\cdot Q\to\rm{const.}}, to a nonzero diagonal tensor of order three. Still higher multipoles, e.g. of order 2l, would be obtained by dipolar (quadrupolar, octupolar, ...) arrangements of point dipoles (quadrupoles, octupoles, ...), not point monopoles, of lower order, e.g. 2l-1.

Magnetic quadrupole

                    

Coils producing a quadrupole field.                     Schematic quadrupole magnet ("four-pole").

                                                  

See also: Quadrupole magnet

All known magnetic sources give dipole fields. However, to make a magnetic quadrupole it is possible to place four identical bar magnets perpendicular to each other such that the north pole of one is next to the south of the other. Such a configuration cancels the dipole moment and gives a quadrupole moment, and its field will decrease at large distances faster than that of a dipole.

An example of a magnetic quadrupole, involving permanent magnets, is depicted on the right. Electromagnets of similar conceptual design (called quadrupole magnets) are commonly used to focus beams of charged particles in particle accelerators and beam transport lines, a method known as strong focusing. The quadrupole-dipole intersect can be found by multiplying the spin of the unpaired nucleon by its parent atom. There are four steel pole tips, two opposing magnetic north poles and two opposing magnetic south poles. The steel is magnetized by a large electric current that flows in the coils of tubing wrapped around the poles.

Changing magnetic quadrupole moments produces electromagnetic radiation.

Gravitational quadrupole

The mass quadrupole is very analogous to the electric charge quadrupole, where the charge density is simply replaced by the mass density. The gravitational potential is then expressed as: V_q(\mathbf{R})=G \frac{1}{2} \frac{1}{|\mathbf{R}|^3} \sum_{i,j} Q_{ij}\, n_i n_j\ .

For example, because the Earth is rotating, it is oblate (flattened at the poles). This gives it a nonzero quadrupole moment. While the contribution to the Earth's gravitational field from this quadrupole is extremely important for artificial satellites close to Earth, it is less important for the Moon, because the \frac{1}{|\mathbf{R}|^3}\frac{1}{|\mathbf{R}|^3}term falls quickly.

The mass quadrupole moment is also important in general relativity because, if it changes in time, it can produce gravitational radiation, similar to the electromagnetic radiation produced by oscillating electric or magnetic quadrupoles. (In particular, the second time derivative must be nonzero.) The mass monopole represents the total mass-energy in a system, and does not change in time—thus it gives off no radiation. Similarly, the mass dipole represents the center of mass of a system, which also does not change in time—thus it also gives off no radiation. The mass quadrupole, however, can change in time, and is the lowest-order contribution to gravitational radiation.[2]

The simplest and most important example of a radiating system is a pair of black holes with equal masses orbiting each other. If we place the coordinate origin right between the two black holes, and one black hole at unit distance along the x-axis, the system will have no dipole moment. Its quadrupole moment will simply be Q_{ij}=M(3x_i x_j-\delta_{ij})\ , where M is the mass of each hole, and is the unit vector in the x-direction. As the system orbits, the x-vector will rotate, which means that it will have a nonzero second time derivative. Thus, the system will radiate gravitational waves. Energy lost in this way was indirectly detected in the Hulse–Taylor binary.

Just as electric charge and current multipoles contribute to the electromagnetic field, mass and mass-current multipoles contribute to the gravitational field in General Relativity, because GR also includes "gravitomagnetic" effects. Changing mass-current multipoles can also give off gravitational radiation. However, contributions from the current multipoles will typically be much smaller than that of the mass quadrupole.

See also

References

  1.  Jackson, John David (1975). Classical Electrodynamics. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 047143132X.
  2. Thorne, Kip S. (April 1980). "Multipole Expansions of Gravitational Radiation". Reviews of Modern Physics 52 (2): 299–339. Bibcode 1980RvMP...52..299T. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.52.299.

External links